Bibliography jainism religion yale forum on religion. Followers of jainism are called jains, and there are about 4 million worldwide. They do not believe in the existence of a god or gods that will aid the human race. He has also tried to depict differences between jainism and baudhdhism, where applicable. Central to jian belief is the material and the spiritual realm. Religion and culture of the jains by jyoti prasad jain 1983, bharatiya jnanpith will provide an orderly and clear.
The present book is one of the best and stimulating books ever written by scholars on jainism. Since gautama buddha, founder of buddhism, belonged to the same region of magadha as mahavira the 24th tirthankar of jainism, and because both were contemporaries, it was assumed erroneously that jainism was contemporary of buddhism or was an off. Of the two major divisions of jainism, the digambaras believe all their original scriptures going back to the time of mahavira, their founder in the present era. Why jainism is the worlds most peaceful religion youtube. The split did not incur doctrinal or moral differences but only. In north america, there are an estimated 25,000 jain families practicing the ancient traditions of this religion. Jainism is an indian religion that emphasizes complete nonviolence and asceticism. Formerly, it was thought that jainism was a branch either of buddhism or of hinduism. Jainism is a religious offshoot to hinduism, originating from the indian subcontinent. Jainism differs from many religions in that there is no one scripture or holy book that is central to our faith. It is based on the teachings of its founder, mahavira. All the twentyfour great liberators have an animal associated with them, symbolizing that in jain teachings the place of animals is central.
Christianity is based on the teaching of jesus of nazareth jesus christ, believed to be the son of god. Mar 17, 2015 jain beliefs jainism has historical roots in hinduism, but there are many differences between the two indian religions today. For example, all three traditions share a notion of karma as the actions of individuals that determine their future births, yet each has attached unique connotations to the concept. We have certain scriptures which are considered as very sacred.
On 30 january 2014, the government of india explicitly awarded the status of a minority religion to the jain community in india, as per section 2c of the national commission for minorities ncm act ncm, 1992. This text has two versions containing 344357 aphorisms. Sep 10, 2009 pilgrimage pilgrimage in jainism temples on the shatrunjaya hills, gujurat an important jain site. The most popular and influential texts of jainism have been its noncanonical literature. It is one of the most rigorous forms of spiritually motivated diet on the indian subcontinent and beyond. The first jina is traditionally believed to have been a giant who lived 8. The faith is named for the jinas, spiritual conquerors who have achieved liberation and perfection. Pilgrimage plays an important part in jain life for digambaras and some svetambaras. They give money and supplies to the monasteries, allowing the monks and nuns to focus on religious rituals and practices. By birth, im jain and trying to be jain by actand i appreciate many historical perspective on jainism. Lord mahavirs preaching was methodically compiled by his followers into many texts. Jainism is revered for its commitment to nonviolence and respect for the natural world.
One of the religions that propagated early in indias history is called jainism. List of books and articles about jainism online research. Online shopping for jainism religion from a great selection at books store. Jain principles in a full referenced, comprehensively indexed, questionanswer format with lots of examples. An introduction does exactly what his subtitle indicates.
The jains, a small religious group believing in an immortal soul, are indigenous to india, and affirm many of the ideas of their hindu counterparts, but are critical of other hindu doctrines. Immediately download the jainism summary, chapterbychapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more everything you need for studying or teaching jainism. Shah jain study center of north carolina raleigh 401 farmstead drive, cary nc 275115631 9194690956 and fax. This knowledge was orally transferred from acharyas gurus to the disciples over the course of about one thousand years. Jain siddhant prashnottarmala gujarati, typed, size1. Believing that a life of selfdenial was the way to achieve enlightenment, mahavira wandered naked and mute through india for 12 years, enduring hardship and. Definitely worth reading, especially if you revere nature and are dubious about monotheistic religions. The acharangasutra deals chiefly with the ethical conduct and discipline of monks. Love is not love if it does not include love of animals, according to jain teachings. Jainism is an ancient religion from india that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live lives of harmlessness and renunciation. Compiled by ramjibhai manekchand doshi and many volunteers. Pathological impact of sic environment of professions prohibited by jain acaryas. These are divided into two classes anga agamas or the original twelve books and angabahya agamas or the texts outside of the original twelve books. Jainism dont have any specific holy book like the bhagavad geeta,the quran or the bible.
Some artifacts found in the indus valley civilization have been suggested as a link to ancient jain culture, but this is highly. There was a disagreement between early hinduism, and ascetic movements such as jainism with the scriptural access to women. A barrister by profession, he worked to defend the rights of jains, and wrote and lectured extensively on jainism, other religions, and philosophy. At the time of alexander the greats invasion on the borders of the magadha empire, it was the jain rulers who were in firm control at pataliputra. The total jain population is about 6 million in the world, which is less than 1% of the indian population. The kalpasutra describes in detail the lifestory of mahavira. The arhant heritage jainism shraman culture is confirmed by the writings in srimad bhagwad, padmapuran, vishnupuran, skandapuran and shivpuran, naradpuran, manusmriti and other religious book. These texts are the holy scriptures of the jain religion. Virachand raghavji gandhi 25 august 1864 7 august 1901 was a jain scholar who represented jainism at the first world parliament of religions in 1893. These texts are collectively known as agams, the sacred books of the jain religion.
Examining religion through generations of jain audiences mdpi. An introduction, is a thoroughly researched overview of the jain tradition, a religion and set of philosophical constructs that have. Jainism, indian religion teaching a path to spiritual purity and enlightenment through disciplined nonviolence ahimsa, literally noninjury to all living creatures. Jainism is an ancient religion from india that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live a life of harmlessness and renunciation. Hence, the jain religion does not have one sacred book like the bible or. This book presents a detailed fieldworkbased study of the ancient indian religion of jainism. The jain scriptures are the source books of jain ethics, yoga, religion, philosophy and mythology.
Drawing on field research in northern gujarat and on the study of both ancient sanskrit and prakrit and modern vernacular jain religious literature, john cort provides a rounded portrait of the religion as it is practiced today. The sacred literature of the jains religion online. Magadha was the center of jainism in the written history of india. Jainism traces its roots to a succession of 24 jinas those who overcome, or conqueror in ancient east india. This religion is unique in comparison to other religions because there is no belief in a deity or greater power. Concise but accurate introduction to the key principles of jainism. Jainism is one of the foremost world religions that pushes human beings to rise to their highest potential and discover their most compassionate self. The twentyfourth was mahavir who lived 2,600 years ago.
For example, all three traditions share a notion of karma as the actions of individuals that determine their future births, yet each has attached unique connotations to the. Sep 25, 2014 india has a long history of religious and spiritual wealth. It is a religion and philosophy originating in ancient india. After two hundred years of vain efforts and of spending millions of dollars with the prestige of the conqueror and backed by british bayonets, christianity is not supported by the converts themselves. They are humans who achieve enlightenment via asceticism. The texts containing the teachings of mahavira are called the agamas, and are the canonical literature the scriptures of. Jainism, hinduism, and buddhism share many key concepts derived from the sanskrit language and dialects that have enabled them to hone their religious debates. Here is a link to the site for the textbook revealing world religions related to which. The world of jainism this is the best book on jainism. Jainism in india after lord mahavira this religion flourished in magadha and elsewhere because of the strong rulers at pataliputra. A section of scholars earlier considered it as a hindu sect or a buddhist heresy, but it is one of the three ancient indian religions. The strength of the book its thoroughness and density also may be a deterrent to the new reader. Jains believe that jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the jain cosmology. Topics include the tirthankaras and ascetic orders, the ethical pillars, spiritual practices, and world jainism.
It was translated with an introduction by nathmal tatia, includes a foreword by l. Jainism and other religions jainism and other religions as jainism, in all respects, is a religion of india, it has very close relations with other main religions of india like hinduism and buddhism. Some artifacts found in the indus valley civilization have been suggested as a link to ancient jain culture, but this is highly speculative and a subjective interpretation. Jainism, traditionally known as jain dharma, is one of the oldest religions in the world. Jainism, ajivika, and buddhism arose in the 6th cent. This book has ten chapters of uneven length containing the above number of aphorisms. Lord mahavirs preaching was orally complied by his disciples into many texts. This succinct, completely engaging overview of jainism, the historical contexts of jain intellectual thought, and the relationship of. It is simply impossible to list all varieties of religion 1 as we as a species have created an almost infinite variety of religious and transcendental ideas. The religion of jains included women in their fourfold sangha. The jain path of purification by padmanabh jaini university of california press, 1979 was, in addition to the previous work, one of the very first books of its kind to be authored by a jain for the education of those unfamiliar with the jain worldview and way of life. Hence, the jain religion does not have one sacred book like the bible or koran, but it has many books complied by many followers. Agams are the jain texts which are based on the discourse. Agama is a sanskrit word which signifies the coming of a body of doctrine by means of.
Long provides a succinct and accurate overview of the history, beliefs and practices of the jains that draws in an excellent manner upon the most recent scholarship. However jainism does believe in god, not as a creator, but as a perfect being. My brothers and sisters of america, there is not the least shadow of hope that india can ever be christianised. Followers of jainism are called jains, a word derived from the sanskrit word jina victor referring to the path of victory in crossing over lifes stream of rebirths by destroying karma through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains see these texts, which are the transcriptions of lord mahavirs sermons, as sacred documents. Instead they have a collection of holy writings and scriptures. Historically hinduism has developed over about 4,000 years and has no single founder or creed.
The text contents are related with the major theoretical and practical aspects of jain system. More precisely, it informs us of a specific attitude of the jains, throughout time and space, towards other traditions and their religious texts, namely an attitude of. This oldest wisdom of mankind is being made available in all the languages for the benefit of humanity with movements like mission 24l. Lord mahavira gave his first sermon on the vipula peak at rajgir. He revived the jain religion as it is practiced today. The history of jainism after lord mahavira is recorded in the jaina literature preserved in various indian languages. Study living religions chapter 4 flashcards at proprofs chapter 4 describes the basic beliefs and practices of jainism. The second edition was published in 2004, in which we have added religious holidays and modified certain information on each religion based on the feedback we have received. Jains trace their history through twentyfour tirthankara and revere rishabhanatha as the first tirthankara in the present timecycle. I was surprised to discover that jainism dates from the time of the buddha, and has such a large following today. The holy teachers are called the jina, and they are the epitome of teaching for all jains, especially the jina mahavira. Unlike most common monotheistic religions, jainism does not have one holy book that characterizes their faith.
The book renders each verse into an easy to understand commentary and provides an excellent overview of the jain philosophy and religion. Bc as protests against the overdeveloped ritualism of hinduism, particularly its sacrificial cults, and the authority of the veda. Jain scriptures were written over a long period of time, but the most cited is the tattvartha sutra, or book of reality, written by the monkscholar, umasvati aka umasvami almost 1800 years ago. Different religions have different holy books books they consider holy. The 24th and last tirthankara of that age was vardhamana, who is known by the epithet mahavira great hero. Items in lower case italics are classes of religion and not actual religions. Jainworld is a nonprofit taxexempt membership and donationsupported organization dedicated to jain tradition of wisdom, compassion, equality, brotherhood, universal wellbeing and spirituality.
The jain cuisine is completely vegetarian and also excludes underground vegetables such as potato, garlic, onion etc, to prevent injuring small insects and microorganisms. The book presents jainism in a way that is authentic and engaging to specialists and nonspecialists alike. Samayasara, ratnakaranda sravakacara, and niyamasara. Starting with bimbisar, the kings of the nanda dynasty and the early maurya dynasty were believers of jainism, according to the jain literature. In jainism, the lay community, while it does not hold any leadership role, is vital to the jain religion. When a person destroys all his karmas, he becomes a liberated soul.
Famous for its promotion of nonviolence and often paired with buddhism 1 as one of ancient india 2s two greatest dissenting religions, jainism is currently professed by roughly 0. For example, the holy book of christianity is the bible, the holy book of islam is the quran, and the holy book of the. Every book is a holy book, as they contains preaching of jina. Jainism traditionally known as jain dharma, is an ancient indian religion. Jainism is an eastern religion with origins in the indus river valley dating back to 3000 b. It is a small text but it describes jainism excellently. Also, as mentioned in the book, jainism is scientific religion covering physics, math and other subjects.
The religion derives its name from the jinas conquerors, a title given to twentyfour great teachers tirthankaras or fordmakers, through. The agam sutras show great reverence for all forms of life and strict codes of vegetarianism, asceticism, nonviolence, and opposition to war. The jain tradition believes that their religion is eternal, and the teachings of their first tirthankara rishabhanatha were their scriptures millions. The evidence of the existence of such religions, though scanty, is available from the buddhist and jain texts. This book is the first comprehensive study of jainism to be published in the west. For example, theism is any religion that contains gods, and polytheism is a form of theism.
Perhaps of least interest to general readers, of all the scriptures treated in this volume, are those of the jain faith, simply because they are so monastic in character. Jain vegetarianism is practiced by the followers of jain culture and philosophy. The place of worship for jains and hindus are commonly known as the temple. The world of conquerors volume 1 natubhai shah, dr natubhai shah. History of jainism is the history of a religion founded in ancient india. The holy teachers are called the jina, and they are the epitome of. In these books there are lucid descriptions on the birth of jainism. He possesses infinite knowledge, infinite vision, infinite power, and infinite bliss. The most momentous event, which occurred about 80 a. The following list of books incorporates a number of salient points of view, and they would be especially good for those not raised as jains. This is in a fully referenced, comprehensively indexed, questionanswer format with many examples helps to readily grasp even difficult concepts. Jain religion the true nature of a substance is a religion any activities of body, mind and.
This is one of the most important differences between the two groups in jainism, and it means that jain texts have very different roles for the two groups of jains. A glance at its contents will reveal the fact that glasenapp has covered almost all the salient features of jainism. Legal status of jainism as a distinct religion in india. Jainism began in the 6th century as a reformation movement within hinduism. The holy book of jainism is a collection of texts known as agam literature or the agam sutras. The most enjoyable parts of the book were its discussions of jainist ethics and the nature of the life force. This book is a must for scholars of south asian religions and will provide scholars of hindu traditions fine grounding both in a central dialectic of jain thought. The holy book of jains the kalpa sutra is the holy book of the of jainism religion. Jain tradition regards him as the 23rd tirthankara literally, ford maker. Wilson underlines this spirit of multiple worldviews and its apparent unity in his controversial book, consilience. The tattvarthasutra is a famous book which summarizes jain teachings. It has no beginning as it predates recorded history. Jainism ontario consultants on religious tolerance.
Jain books, jain literature, jain shastras in english. Michael tobias has described nonviolance ahimsa in great details. Yet, the jains constitute a small proportion of the indian people. Our tirthnakaras disciples gandhers complied their words into texts, which are also called as agamslictretures, and passed to us so that every future generation can know the history. Mar 17, 2015 jainism is an indian religion that emphasizes complete nonviolence and asceticism. There are over 1 billion people follows the religion. Jaina jainism i basic of jainism jes102 level 1 book. An introduction, is a thoroughly researched overview of the jain tradition, a religion and set of philosophical constructs that have influenced indian thought for over 2500 years. Along with hinduism and buddhism, jainism is one of the three most ancient indian religious traditions still in existence and an. Jainism emerged in 6thcentury bce india, the same time buddhism was developing. Antiquity of jainism professor mahavir saran jain lord mahavira is not the founder of jainism. Holy book of jain religion these texts are collectively known as agams, the sacred books of the jain religion. An introduction by charles samuel braden chapter 7. Jainism was born in india about the same period as buddhism.
It is written by a practising jain, drawing on his rich experience of jainism in all its aspects. There are six highly recommended books that together form an excellent literary introduction to jainism and the jain way of thinking. The jain literature, which was compiled by ganadharas and srutkevlis, is known as agam literature. The hindus consider them to be the believers in the hinduism. With this idea in mind, the first edition of this booklet was compiled. Jeffery longs book admirably accomplishes two goals.345 1437 104 1397 1115 575 707 261 628 525 917 1393 584 514 584 876 365 1288 1052 1190 355 238 764 1220 462 735 341 1127