Genome sequencing analysis of macrophomina phaseolina resistant and susceptible castor genotype shulbhi verma 1, rukam singh tomar 2, visha rathode 2, jalpa thakker 2, shubham 2, nawade bhagwaat 2, sacheen raval 2, tushar antala 2, zeel jogia 2 and b. In the pathogenic stage the fungus is a nonspecific pathogen and attacks a broad spectrum of eco. Macrophomina phaseolina is one of the most destructive necrotrophic fungal pathogens that infect more than 500 plant species throughout the world. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the fungus are described, followed by accounts of its physiology, behaviour in soil, epidemiology and pathogenesis. Irrespective of the agro climatic conditions, sesame is infected by various pathogenic fungi. The 53 phaseolus vulgaris accessions were evaluated in paired rows, with and without inoculation, arranged in a randomized block design with 3 replicates. The microsclerotia overwinter in the soil and crop residue and are the primary source of inoculum in the spring.
Development of specific oligonucleotide primers and probe for m. Charcoal rot macrophomina phaseolina resistance and the. Pdf emerging phytopathogen macrophomina phaseolina biology. Diagrammatic representation of the disease cycle for the stem canker caused by. Fungal keratitis caused by macrophomina phaseolina a case. In our country firstly described in 1967 on sugar beet in north and central banat. Charcoal rot is an important disease during hot, dry weather or when unfavorable environmental conditions stress the plant. The disease affects the leaves, stems, pods, seeds, hypocotyls and roots. Nematodefungal disease complex involving meloidogyne incognita and macrophomina phaseolina on medicinal coleus, coleus forskohlii briq. In the present studies, 65 isolates of macrophomina phaseolina from different agroecological regions of punjab and khyber pakhtunkhwa provinces of pakistan were analyzed for morphological and pathogenic variability. Maximum growth at 30 c was water potentials between 0. Vigna mungo, macrophomina phaseolina, trichoderma spp, trichoderma viride, trichoderma harzianum. Charcoal rot disease caused by macrophomina phaseolina tassi goid is an economically important constraint in.
Agroatlas diseases macrophomina phaseolina tassi goid. Macrophomina is a genus of fungi in the family botryosphaeriaceae. Macrophomina phaseolina alters the biochemical pathway in. It is an economically important disease of a broad range of crops srivastava et al. The disease development is favored by high air temperatures 30. Images taken from compendium of soybean diseases, 3 rd edition. Isolation, identification and in vitro screening of. This might explain the variability of the results obtained in the present study and throughout the literature.
In contrast to the many pathogens favored by change to moister conditions garrett et al. The fungus can infect the root and lower stem of over 500 plant species and is widely distributed in the united states 8. Macrophomina phaseolina is the cause of charcoal rot of soybean glycine max. It can grow rapidly in infected plants and subsequently produces a large amount of sclerotia that plugs the vessels, resulting in wilting of the plant. Macrophomina phaseolina alters the biochemical pathway in vigna radiata. Macrophomina phaseolina is a botryospaeriacea and can produce pycnidia in some media using defined lightdark cycles chidambaram and mathur, 1975. Although symptoms were noted in the crown area of the plant, results of root isolations confirmed that the damage encountered under local conditions was due primarily to a root rot caused by this. Macrophomina phaseolina also can infect many wild plants and is an opportunistic pathogen of humans tan et al. Genome sequencing analysis of macrophomina phaseolina. The penetration of second stage juveniles of meloidogyne javanica started within 12 hours after inoculation and the rate of penetration gradually increased with. Detection, identification and morphological characteristic of macrophomina phaseolina.
Charcoal rot macrophomina phaseolina tassi goid of soybean glycine max l. Effect of rootrot fungus macrophomina phaseolina on the life cycle. Distribution and abundance of heterodera glycines and macrophomina phaseolina during the 20 and 2014 growing seasons, composite soil samples were collected from 370 fields in 58 counties in ohio. Pathogen infection process epidemiology biocontrol and management. Interactive effect of meloidogyne incognita and macrophomina. Charcoal rot disease caused by macrophomina phaseolina tassi goid is an economically important constraint in mung bean production especially in arid regions of the world and in arid to tropical regions of pakistan. The fungus cause disease symptoms in hot and dry weather, the ideal conditions where most of its hosts are cultivated. Macrophomina phaseolina through microbial antagonists. Disease incidence is often greatest when plants are stressed by drought and high temperature. The development of mp structures with swelled and pigmented walls, produced either inter and intracellularly. The fungus can survive up to 23 years as a mycelium, in asymptomatic seeds, or as microsclerotia in the soil or plant debris 3, 4. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of macrophomina phaseolina.
Under dry conditions, macrophomina microsclerotia can survive up to 15 years in the soil 5. Macrophomina phaseolina is a serious pathogen of many crops. B infected roots after being in contact or in proximity with microsclerotia. Pdf charcoal rot caused by the fungus, macrophomina phaseolina, is one of the most. Production of macrophomina phaseolina conidia by multiple. Evaluation of soil fungicides for control of charcoal rot of soybeans. Regardless of their geographic origins, significant differences were detected among 65 isolates in their. Genome sequencing analysis of macrophomina phaseolina resistant and susceptible castor genotype. Macrophomina phaseolina as causal agent for charcoal rot of. We sequenced and assembled 49 mb into 15 superscaffolds covering 92. Introduction charcoal rot disease on blackgram caused by macrophomina phaseolina was commonly found in backgram plantations. Macrophomina phaseolina through microbial antagonists shumaila shahid and mujeebur rahman khan department of plant protection, faculty of agricultural sciences, aligarh muslim university, 202002 aligarh, india abstract present study was carried out to examine the biological potential of different fungal and bacterial antagonists viz.
Earlier sunflower genotypes were significantly more sensitive to the pathogen than later genotypes. Production of pycnidia in different isolates of macrophomina phaseolina on wateragarleaf medium under alternating cycles of nearultraviolet light and darkness incubation period within which pycnidia had formed days year of, first pearl host origin isolation wheat millet caricapapaya cassia angustifolia c. Production of pycnidia by macrophomina phaseolina sciencedirect. Merrill, journal of phytopathology, 2012, 160, 4, 167wiley online library. The pathogen generally attacks the young plants when their growth is retarded due to unfavourable conditions.
Economic crop hosts include cotton, groundnut, jute, maize, millet, potato, sesame, soybean and other beans, sunflower, sweet potato, tomato, and tobacco 3. The reddish brown leaf lesions are round to irregular varying from specks to mature spots. Effect of soil fungicides on macrophomina phaseolina sclerotium viability in soil and in soybean stem pieces. Field inoculations were made by placing 4 g of whole rice seeds colonized by m. Introduction charcoal rot caused by macrophomina phaseolina t assi goid. The fungus macrophomina phaseolina is a causative agent of diseases in more than 500 plant species. The outbreak of the fungus severely damages the growth of the blackgram, causing root and stem rot. Pdf histopathology of charcoal rot disease macrophomina. Charcoal rot caused by the fungus, macrophomina phaseolina, have emerged as serious. It causes seedling blight, charcoal rot, dry root rot, wilt, leaf blight, stem blight and preemergence and postemergence dampingoff, root and stem rot.
Pdf on mar 1, 2019, parisa hemmati and others published corrigendum to histopathology of charcoal rot disease macrophomina phaseolina in resistant and susceptible cultivars of soybean. Biological control for charcoal rot macrophomina phaseolina. Charcoal rot macrophomina phaseolina tassi goid macrophomina rot is responsible for economic damage to sunflower production and is especially widespread in arid regions. C fungus grows within the stem and root affecting and disrupting the vascular system. Interaction of meloidogyne incognita race3 and macrophomina phaseolina in rootrot disease complex of chickpea. Molecular identification of macrophomina phaseolina by. Effect of water potential on the growth and survival of. Significant occurrence was observed in 1971 in many localities in the vojvodina province, and it was predominant in isolations from sugar. Infection of sweetpotato by fusarium solani and macrophomina. Charcoal rot, caused by macrophomina phaseolina, is a relatively new disease in florida. Charcoal rot of strawberries caused by macrophomina.
Research conducted over the past 10 yr has improved our understanding of the environment conducive to disease development, host resistance, and improved disease diagnosis and. Shulbhi verma 1, rukam singh tomar 2, visha rathode 2, jalpa thakker 2, shubham 2, nawade bhagwaat 2, sacheen raval 2, tushar antala 2, zeel jogia 2 and b. This fungus is primarily a plant pathogen infecting the root and lower stem of over 500 plant species. This disease was first observed in december 2001, when collapsed and dying strawberry plants from a commercial field were submitted to our diagnostic clinic. Macrophomina phaseolina is a soil and seed borne fungus and it can infect more than 500 cultivated and wild plant species. Relatedness of macrophomina phaseolina isolates from. Amusa na, okechukwu ru, akinfenwa b 2007 reactions of cowpea to infection by macrophomina phaseolina isolates from leguminous plants in nigeria.
There are two species, macrophomina limbalis and macrophomina phaseolina. Macrophomina phaseolina has a monocyclic disease cycle. Genetic diversity in macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of. The microsclerotia serve as the primary source of inoculum and have been found to persist within the soil up to three years 4. The sterile mycelium stage rhizoctonia bataticola is also present in the cycle of its development. B macrophomina phaseolina colonyforming units cfu in selective media as described. Advancing our understanding of charcoal rot in soybeans.
Thus, further studies involving the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of macrophomina, independently from. The causative agent of charcoal root rot of cotton is the fungus macrophomina phaseolina developing during its life cycle in anamorphous stage. The role of macrophomina phaseolina in a collapse of melon. The density of free sclerotia on the soil was determined for plots of crop rotation soybeancorn and soybean monoculture soon after soybean harvest. Seed treatment of bean phaseolus vulgaris against macrophomina phaseolina and its effect on emergence. Infection of sweetpotato by fusarium solani and macrophomina phaseolina prior to harvest washington l. First report of macrophomina phaseolina causing leaf and stem. Production of macrophomina phaseolina conidia by multiple soybean isolates in culture. Among the fungal diseases, charcoal rot of sesame caused by macrophomina phaseolina tasi goid is the most devastating, causing up to 55% or more disease incidence in field resulting in heavy yield losses. In field experiments, the density of macrophomina phaseolina microsclerotia in root tissues of naturally colonized soybean cultivars was quantified.
Macrophomina phaseolina botryosphaeriaceae is an important soil and seed borne pathogen. Apr 29, 2016 macrophomina phaseolina causes huge annual losses to the crop and can survives in the soil mainly as microsclerotia for 2 years or longer and. Isolation, identification and in vitro screening of rhizospheric fungi for biological control of macrophomina phaseolina. Reactions of selected bean accessions to infection by. Macrophoma phaseolina tassi macrophoma sesami sawada macrophomina phaseoli maubl. Disease cycle of macrophomina phaseolina smith et al. Macrophomina phaseolina causes huge annual losses to the crop and can survives in the soil mainly as microsclerotia for 2 years or longer and. Macrophomina phaseolina is a widespread, nonspecific pathogen that can infect more than 500 hosts in about 100 families, including crops and weeds 3, 4. Although symptoms were noted in the crown area of the plant, results of root isolations confirmed that the damage encountered under local conditions was due primarily to a root rot caused by this pathogen. Estimation of variablity in macrophomina phaseolina incitant. Organism names see more details and it took about 33 days to complete the life cycle, i. Sharma, rajkumar ramteke, biology, epidemiology and management of the pathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina tassi goid with special reference to charcoal rot of soybean glycine max l. In field experiments, the density of macrophomina phaseolina microsclerotia.
Control of charcoal rot disease in blackgram caused by. Drought and high temperature stress 70 increase crop losses due to m. Pdf emerging phytopathogen macrophomina phaseolina. Sep 19, 2012 macrophomina phaseolina is one of the most destructive necrotrophic fungal pathogens that infect more than 500 plant species throughout the world. Distribution and abundance of heterodera glycines and. Macrophomina phaseolina, field symptom of mungbean. Detection, identification and morphological characteristic of.
The pathogen life cycle begins with microsclerotia germination. Macrophomina phaseolina charcoal rot of beantobacco. Ecology and management of charcoal rot macrophomina phaseolina on cowpea. How to cite publication history plumx article matrix.804 911 519 50 1071 586 871 20 1371 1534 1300 1286 1046 479 1289 1121 368 1268 853 402 642 1315 205 381 67 1068 1266 864 1149 1471 1076